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Lin, YR, Tunuguntla V, Wei SY, Chen WC, Wong D, Lai CH, Liu LK, Chen LC, Chen KH.  2015.  Bifacial sodium-incorporated treatments: tailoring deep traps and enhancing carrier transport properties in Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells. Nano Energy . 16:438.
Wong, DP, Suriyaprabha R, Yuvakumar R, Rajendran V, Chen YT, Hwang BJ, Chen LC, Chen KH.  2014.  Binder-free rice husk-based silicon-graphene composite as energy efficient Li-ion battery anodes. J. Mater. Chem. A. 2:13437-13441.
Dhara*, S, Chandra S, Magudapathy P, Kalavathi S, Panigrahi BK, Nair KGM, Sastry VS, Hsu CW, Wu CT, Chen KH, Chen LC.  2004.  Blue luminescence of Au nanoclusters embedded in silica matrix. J. Chem. Phys.. 121:12595-12599.
Dhara, SK, Datta A, Lan ZH, Chen* KH, Wang YL, Shen CS, Chen LC, Hsu CW, Lin HM, Chen CC.  2004.  Blue shift of yellow band in self-ion beam irradiated GaN nanowires. Appl. Phys. Lett.. 84:3486-3488.
Lo, HC, Wu JJ, Wen CY, Wong TS, Lin ST, Chen* KH, Chen LC.  2001.  Bonding characterization and nano-indentation study of the amorphous SiCxNy films with and without hydrogen incorporation. Diamond Relat. Mater.. 10:1916-1920.
Sabbah, A, Shown I, Qorbani M, Fu F-Y, Lin T-Y, Wu H-L, Chung P-W, Wu C-I, Santiago SRM, Shen J-L, Chen K-H, Chen L-C.  2022.  Boosting photocatalytic CO2 reduction in a ZnS/ZnIn2S4 heterostructure through strain-induced direct Z-scheme and a mechanistic study of molecular CO2 interaction thereon, 2022. Nano Energy. 93:106809. AbstractWebsite

Employing direct Z-scheme semiconductor heterostructures in photocatalysis offers efficient charge carrier separation and isolation of both redox reactions, thus beneficial to reduce CO2 into solar fuels. Here, a ZnS/ZnIn2S4 heterostructure, comprising cubic ZnS nanocrystals on hexagonal ZnIn2S4 (ZIS) nanosheets, is successfully fabricated in a single-pot hydrothermal approach. The composite ZnS/ZnIn2S4 exhibits microstrain at its interface with an electric field favorable for Z-scheme. At an optimum ratio of Zn:In (~ 1:0.5), an excellent photochemical quantum efficiency of around 0.8% is reached, nearly 200-fold boost compared with pristine ZnS. Electronic levels and band alignments are deduced from ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and UV-Vis. Evidence of the direct Z-scheme and carrier dynamics is verified by photo-reduction experiment, along with photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved PL. Finally, diffuse-reflectance infrared Fourier transformed spectroscopy explores the CO2 and related intermediate species adsorbed on the catalyst during the photocatalytic reaction. This microstrain-induced direct Z-scheme approach opens a new pathway for developing next-generation photocatalysts for CO2 reduction.

C
Fang, WC, Huang* JH, Chen LC, Su YO, H.Chen K, Sun CL.  2006.  Carbon nanotubes directly grown on Ti electrodes and enhancement in their electrochemical properties by nitric acid treatment. Electrochemical and Solid-State Lett.. 9:A5.
Chen*, KH, Wong TS, Wang CT, Chen LC, Ma KJ.  2001.  Carbon nanotubes growth by rapid thermal processing. Diamond and Related Materials. 10:1810-1813.
Shown, I, Samireddi S, Chang Y-C, Putikam R, Chang P-H, Sabbah A, Fu F-Y, Chen W-F, Wu C-I, Yu T-Y, Chung P-W, Lin MC, Chen L-C, Chen K-H.  2018.  Carbon-doped SnS2 nanostructure as a high-efficiency solar fuel catalyst under visible light, 2018. Nature Communications. 9(1):169. AbstractWebsite

Photocatalytic formation of hydrocarbons using solar energy via artificial photosynthesis is a highly desirable renewable-energy source for replacing conventional fossil fuels. Using an l-cysteine-based hydrothermal process, here we synthesize a carbon-doped SnS2 (SnS2-C) metal dichalcogenide nanostructure, which exhibits a highly active and selective photocatalytic conversion of CO2 to hydrocarbons under visible-light. The interstitial carbon doping induced microstrain in the SnS2 lattice, resulting in different photophysical properties as compared with undoped SnS2. This SnS2-C photocatalyst significantly enhances the CO2 reduction activity under visible light, attaining a photochemical quantum efficiency of above 0.7%. The SnS2-C photocatalyst represents an important contribution towards high quantum efficiency artificial photosynthesis based on gas phase photocatalytic CO2 reduction under visible light, where the in situ carbon-doped SnS2 nanostructure improves the stability and the light harvesting and charge separation efficiency, and significantly enhances the photocatalytic activity.

Chen*, LC, Chang SW, Chang CS, Wen CY, Wu J-J, Chen YF, Huang YS, Chen KH.  2001.  Catalyst-free growth of transparent SiCN nanorods. J. Phys. & Chem. of Solids. 62:1567-1576.
Chen*, C-C, Yeh C-C, Chen CH, Yu MY, Liu HL, Wu JJ, Chen KH, Chen LC, Peng JY, Chen YF.  2001.  Catalytic growth and characterization of gallium nitride nanowires. J. Am. Chem. Soc.. 123:2791-2798.
Li, CC, Lin RJ, Lin HP, Chang CC, Lin YK, Chen LC, Chen KH.  2011.  Catalytic performance of plate-type Cu/Fe nanocomposites on ZnO nanorods for oxidative steam reforming of methanol. Chem. Comm.. 47:1473-1475.
Muto*, S, Dhara SK, Datta A, Hsu CW, Wu CT, Shen CH, Chen LC, Chen KH, Wang YL, Tanabe T, Maruyama T, Lin HM, Chen CC.  2004.  Characterization of nanodome on GaN nanowires formed with Ga ion irradiation. Mater. Trans.. 45:435-439.
Huang, LW, Chang CK, Chien FC, Chen KH, Chen P, Chen FR, Chang CS.  2014.  Characterization of the cleaning process on a transferred graphene. J. Vac. Sci. Tech. A . 32:050601.
Wei-ChaoChen, Tunuguntla V, Min-HsuehChiu, Lian-JiunLi, Shown I, Lee C-H, Hwang J-S, Chen L-C, Chen K-H.  2017.  Co-solvent effect on microwave-assisted Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoparticles synthesis for thin film solar cell. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. 161:416-423.
Fahimi, Z, Moradlou O, Sabbah A, Chen K-H, Chen L-C, Qorbani M.  2022.  Co3V2O8 hollow spheres with mesoporous walls as high-capacitance electrode for hybrid supercapacitor device, 2022. 436:135225. AbstractWebsite

Bimetal oxides are promising materials in the field of energy storage due to their various oxidation states, synergistic interactions among multiple metal species, and stability. In this work, Co3V2O8 hollow spheres are synthesized by a two-step hydrothermal method: (i) synthesis of V2O5 spheres and (ii) partial replacement of V by Co through the Kirkendall effect. As an electrode, it shows an extrinsic pseudocapacitive charge-storage mechanism due to different oxidation states of V and Co ions. Because of the low crystallinity degree of the mesoporous wall and high accessible surface area of hollow spheres, the optimum Co3V2O8 electrode reaches a high specific capacitance of 2376F g−1 at a current density of 2 A g−1, which is more than two times higher than the top reported values, and a rate capability retention of ∼80% at 20 A g−1. Using Co3V2O8, activated carbon, and KOH as positive, negative electrodes, and electrolyte, respectively, a hybrid supercapacitor device presents maximum energy and power densities of 59.2 Wh kg−1 and 36.6 kW kg−1, respectively. Further, the aqueous supercapacitor device shows superior structural and electrochemical stabilities after 10,000 galvanostatic charge–discharge cycles because of the arrays of voids in the orthorhombic crystal structure of Co3V2O8 that can decrease the volume expansion/shrinkage during the intercalation/deintercalation processes. Our results provide a platform for exploring bimetallic Co and V-based oxides, hydroxides, and sulfides nanostructures as promising energy storage materials in the future.

Deliwala, S, Goldman J, Chen KH, Lu C-Z, Mazur E.  1994.  Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy of Infrared Multiphoton Excited Molecules. J. Chem. Phys.. 101:8517-8528.
Chen, KH, Wu JJ, Chen LC, Wen C-Y, Kichambare PD, Tarntair FG, Kuo PF, Chang SW, Chen YF.  2000.  Comparative studies in field emission properties of carbon-based materials. Diamond & Related Materials. 9:1249-1256.
Ray, SC, Pao CW, Tsai HM, Chiou JW, Pong* WF, Chen CW, Tsai M-H, Papakonstantinou P, Chen LC, Chen KH.  2007.  A comparative study of the electronic structures of oxygen- and chlorinetreated nitrogenated carbon nanotubes by X-ray absorption and scanning photoelectron microscopy. Appl. Phys. Lett.. 91:202102.
Chen*, RS, Tsai HY, Chan CH, Huang YS, Chen YT, Chen KH, Chen LC.  2015.  Comparison of CVD- and MBE-grown GaN nanowires: crystallinity, photoluminescence, and photoconductivity. J. Electronic Mater. . 44 :177.
W.Chiou, J, Tsai HM, Pao CW, Dong* CL, Chang CL, Chien FZ, Pong WF, Tsai M-H, Shi SC, Chen CF, Chen LC, Chen KH, Hong I-H, Chen C-H, Lin H-J, Guo JH.  2005.  Comparison of the electronic structures of AlN nanotips grown on p- and n-type Si substrates. J. Phys.: Condens. Matter. 17:7523-7530.
Das, CR, Hsu HC, Dhara S, Bhaduri AK, Raj B, Chen LC, Chen KH, Albert SK, Ray A, Tzeng Y.  2010.  A complete Raman mapping of phase transitions in Si under indentation. J. Raman Spectroscopy. 41:334.
Bhusari, DM, Chen CK, Chen KH, Chuang TJ, Chen LC, Lin MC.  1997.  Composition of SiCN Crystals Consisting of a Predominantly Carbon-nitride Network. J. Mater. Res.. 12:322.
Shown, I, Ganguly A, Chen L-C, Chen K-H.  2015.  Conducting polymer-based flexible supercapacitor, 2015. Energy Science & EngineeringEnergy Science & Engineering. 3(1):2-26.: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd AbstractWebsite

Abstract Flexible supercapacitors, a state-of-the-art material, have emerged with the potential to enable major advances in for cutting-edge electronic applications. Flexible supercapacitors are governed by the fundamentals standard for the conventional capacitors but provide high flexibility, high charge storage and low resistance of electro active materials to achieve high capacitance performance. Conducting polymers (CPs) are among the most potential pseudocapacitor materials for the foundation of flexible supercapacitors, motivating the existing energy storage devices toward the future advanced flexible electronic applications due to their high redox active-specific capacitance and inherent elastic polymeric nature. This review focuses on different types of CPs-based supercapacitor, the relevant fabrication methods and designing concepts. It describes recent developments and remaining challenges in this field, and its impact on the future direction of flexible supercapacitor materials and relevant device fabrications.