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Kamal Hussien, M, Sabbah A, Qorbani M, Hammad Elsayed M, Quadir S, Raghunath P, Tzou D-LM, Haw S-C, Chou H-H, Thang NQ, Lin M-C, Chen L-C, Chen K-H.  2023.  Numerous defects induced by exfoliation of boron-doped g-C3N4 towards active sites modulation for highly efficient solar-to-fuel conversion, 2023. Materials Today Sustainability. 22:100359. AbstractWebsite

Graphitic carbon nitride (CN) has emerged as a highly promising material in the photocatalysis field. However, its bulk structure suffers from a lack of active sites, limiting its practical application. Herein, a boron-doped CN (BCN) was prepared by a green gas-blowing-assisted thermal polymerization and then subjected to different exfoliation processes in order to delaminate the layered structure and tune the surface-active sites. A thorough comparative study shows that thermal exfoliation creates unsaturated nitrogen sites and induces the formation of interconnected layers that act as an electron diffusion channel for better charge transport. Furthermore, the thermally exfoliated BCN is rich in structural disorders that serve as dissociation defects for photoinduced charge carriers with a low exciton binding energy of 27 meV. Experimental results supported by theoretical calculations show that the nitrogen adjacent to boron is activated by the surrounding surface amino groups and the perforated texture to serve as an active adsorption site towards CO2 and H2O. Consequently, the exfoliated BCN acts as an outstanding bifunctional photocatalyst towards CO2 reduction into CO (40.41 μmol g−1 h−1) and prominent hydrogen evolution (4740 μmol g−1 h−1, 12.2% apparent quantum yield (AQY)).

Bhusari, DM, Yang JR, Wang TY, Chen KH, Chen LC.  1998.  Novel Two Stage Method for Growth of Highly Transparent Nano-crystalline Diamond Films. Mater. Lett.. 36:279.
Chen, YC, Lin YG, Hsu YK, Yen SC, Chen KH, Chen LC.  2014.  Novel iron oxyhydroxide lepidocrocite nanosheet as ultrahigh power density anode material for asymmetric supercapacitors. Small . 10:3803–3810.
Lin, YG, Hsu YK, Chen SY, Chen KH, Chen LC.  2008.  Novel copper-zinc oxide arrayed nanoatalysts for hydrogen production applications. ECS Transactions. 13:165-168.
Wang, B-Y, Wang HT, Chen L-Y, Hsueh HC, Chiou JW, Wang W-H, Wang PH, Chen K-H, Chen Y-C, Chen L-C, Chen C-H, Pong WF, Wang J, Guo J-H.  2016.  Nonlinear opening of the band gap of BN-co-doped graphene. Carbon.
Chen, KH, Wang J, Mazur E.  1987.  Non-thermal Intramolecular Vibrational Energy Distribution in Infrared-multiphoton-excited CF2Cl2. Phys. Rev. Lett. 59:2728.
Dhara, SK, Magudapathy P, Kesavamoorthy R, Kalavathi S, Nair KGM, Hsu GM, Chen LC, Chen* KH, Santhakumar K, Soga T.  2006.  Nitrogen ion beam synthesis of InN in InP(100) at elevated temperature. Appl. Phys. Lett.. 88:241904-(1-3).
Billo, T, Fu F-Y, Raghunath P, Shown I, Chen W-F, Lien H-T, Shen T-H, Lee J-F, Chan T-S, Huang K-Y, Wu C-I, Lin MC, Hwang J-S, Lee C-H, Chen L-C, Chen K-H.  2018.  Ni-Nanocluster Modified Black TiO2 with Dual Active Sites for Selective Photocatalytic CO2 Reduction. Small. 14:1702928–n/a., Number 2 AbstractWebsite

One of the key challenges in artificial photosynthesis is to design a photocatalyst that can bind and activate the CO2 molecule with the smallest possible activation energy and produce selective hydrocarbon products. In this contribution, a combined experimental and computational study on Ni-nanocluster loaded black TiO2 (Ni/TiO2[Vo]) with built-in dual active sites for selective photocatalytic CO2 conversion is reported. The findings reveal that the synergistic effects of deliberately induced Ni nanoclusters and oxygen vacancies provide (1) energetically stable CO2 binding sites with the lowest activation energy (0.08 eV), (2) highly reactive sites, (3) a fast electron transfer pathway, and (4) enhanced light harvesting by lowering the bandgap. The Ni/TiO2[Vo] photocatalyst has demonstrated highly selective and enhanced photocatalytic activity of more than 18 times higher solar fuel production than the commercial TiO2 (P-25). An insight into the mechanisms of interfacial charge transfer and product formation is explored.

Chen, HM, Chen CK, Liu RS, Wu CC, Chang WS, Chen KH, Chan TS, Lee JF, Tsai DP.  2011.  A new approach to solar hydrogen production: a ZnO–ZnS solid solution nanowire array photoanode. Advanced Energy Materials. 1:742-747.
and W.C. Liu, Wen CY, Chen KH, Lin WC, Tsai* DP.  2001.  Near-field images of the AgOx super-resolution near-field structure. Appl. Phys. Lett.. 78:685-687.
Lin, YG, Hsu YK, Lin YK, Chen SY, Chen LC, Chen* KH.  2009.  Nanostructured ZnO nanorod@Cu nanoparticle as catalyst for microreformers. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.. 48:7586-7590.
Du, H-Y, Huang Y-F, Wong D, Tseng M-F, Lee Y-H, Wang C-H, Lin C-L, Hoffmann G, Chen K-H, Chen L-C.  2021.  Nanoscale redox mapping at the MoS2-liquid interface, 2021. 12(1):1321. AbstractWebsite

Layered MoS2 is considered as one of the most promising two-dimensional photocatalytic materials for hydrogen evolution and water splitting; however, the electronic structure at the MoS2-liquid interface is so far insufficiently resolved. Measuring and understanding the band offset at the surfaces of MoS2 are crucial for understanding catalytic reactions and to achieve further improvements in performance. Herein, the heterogeneous charge transfer behavior of MoS2 flakes of various layer numbers and sizes is addressed with high spatial resolution in organic solutions using the ferrocene/ferrocenium (Fc/Fc+) redox pair as a probe in near-field scanning electrochemical microscopy, i.e. in close nm probe-sample proximity. Redox mapping reveals an area and layer dependent reactivity for MoS2 with a detailed insight into the local processes as band offset and confinement of the faradaic current obtained. In combination with additional characterization methods, we deduce a band alignment occurring at the liquid-solid interface.

Lan, ZH, Dhara SK, Chen* KH, Wu CT, Chen LC, Hsu CW, Chen CC.  2004.  Nanohomojunction (GaN) and nanoheterojunction (InN) nanorods on 1-dimensional GaN nanowire substrates. Adv. Func. Mater.. 14:233-237.
Kan, MC, Huang* JL, Sung JC, Chen KH, Lii DF.  2003.  Nano-tip emission of tetrahedral amorphous carbon. Diamond & Related Materials. 12:1691-1697.
Han, HC, Lo HC, Wu CY, Chen KH, Chen LC, Ou KL, Hosseinkhani* H.  2015.  Nano-textured Fluidic Biochip as Biological Filter for Selective Survival of Neuronal Cells. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A . 103:2015.
Wu, JJ, Lu TR, Wu CT, Wang TY, Chen LC, Chen KH, Kuo CT, Yu YC, Wang CW, Lin EK.  1999.  Nano-carbon nitride synthesis from a bio-molecular target for ion beam sputtering at low temperature. Diamond and Related Materials. 8:605-609.