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S. Dhara, Datta A, Wu CT, Chen* KH, Wang YL, Muto S, Tanabe T, Shen CH, Hsu CW, Chen LC, Maruyama T.  2005.  Mechanism of nanoblister formation in Ga+ self-ion implanted GaN nanowires. Appl. Phys. Lett.. 86:203119-(1-3).
S. Dhara*, KH, Chandra S, Mangamma G, Kalavathi S, Shankar P, Nair KGM, Tyagi AK, Hsu CW, Kuo CC, Chen LC, Chen KH, Sriram KK.  2007.  Multiphonon Raman scattering in GaN nanowires. Appl. Phys. Lett.. 90:213104.
and r and S. K. Dhara*, Magudapathy P, Kesavamoorthy R, Kalavathi S, Nair KGM, Hsu GM, Chen LC, Chen KH, Santhakumar K, Soga T.  2005.  Optical characterization of GaN by N+ implantation into GaAs at elevated temperature. Appl. Phys. Lett.. 87:261915-(1-3).
S.C. Ray, Tsai HM, Chiou JW, Jan JC, Kumar K, Pong* WF, Chien FZ, Tsai M-H, Chattopadhyay S, Chen LC, Chien SC, Lee MT, Lin ST, Chen KH.  2004.  X-Ray absorption studies of boron–carbon–nitrogen (BxCyNz ) ternary. Diamond & Related Mater.. 13:1553-1557.
Sabbah, A, Shown I, Qorbani M, Fu F-Y, Lin T-Y, Wu H-L, Chung P-W, Wu C-I, Santiago SRM, Shen J-L, Chen K-H, Chen L-C.  2022.  Boosting photocatalytic CO2 reduction in a ZnS/ZnIn2S4 heterostructure through strain-induced direct Z-scheme and a mechanistic study of molecular CO2 interaction thereon, 2022. Nano Energy. 93:106809. AbstractWebsite

Employing direct Z-scheme semiconductor heterostructures in photocatalysis offers efficient charge carrier separation and isolation of both redox reactions, thus beneficial to reduce CO2 into solar fuels. Here, a ZnS/ZnIn2S4 heterostructure, comprising cubic ZnS nanocrystals on hexagonal ZnIn2S4 (ZIS) nanosheets, is successfully fabricated in a single-pot hydrothermal approach. The composite ZnS/ZnIn2S4 exhibits microstrain at its interface with an electric field favorable for Z-scheme. At an optimum ratio of Zn:In (~ 1:0.5), an excellent photochemical quantum efficiency of around 0.8% is reached, nearly 200-fold boost compared with pristine ZnS. Electronic levels and band alignments are deduced from ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and UV-Vis. Evidence of the direct Z-scheme and carrier dynamics is verified by photo-reduction experiment, along with photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved PL. Finally, diffuse-reflectance infrared Fourier transformed spectroscopy explores the CO2 and related intermediate species adsorbed on the catalyst during the photocatalytic reaction. This microstrain-induced direct Z-scheme approach opens a new pathway for developing next-generation photocatalysts for CO2 reduction.

Sabhapathy, P, Liao C-C, Chen W-F, Chou T-chin, Shown I, Sabbah A, Lin Y-G, Lee J-F, Tsai M-K, Chen K-H, Chen L-C.  2019.  Highly efficient nitrogen and carbon coordinated N–Co–C electrocatalysts on reduced graphene oxide derived from vitamin-B12 for the hydrogen evolution reaction, 2019. Journal of Materials Chemistry A. 7(12):7179-7185.: The Royal Society of Chemistry AbstractWebsite

Exploring electrocatalysts composed of earth-abundant elements for a highly efficient hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is scientifically and technologically important for electrocatalytic water splitting. In this work, we report HER properties of acid treated pyrolyzed vitamin B12 supported on reduced graphene oxide (B12/G800A) that shows an extraordinarily enhanced catalytic activity with low overpotential (115 mV vs. RHE at 10 mA cm−2), which is better than that of most traditional nonprecious metal catalysts in acidic media. Stability tests through long-term potential cycles and at a constant current density confirm the exceptional durability of the catalyst. Notably, the B12/G800A catalyst exhibits extremely high turnover frequencies per cobalt site in acid, for example, 0.85 and 11.46 s−1 at overpotentials of 100 and 200 mV, respectively, which are higher than those reported for other scalable non-precious metal HER catalysts. Moreover, it has been conjectured that the covalency of Co–C and Co–N bonds affects HER activities by comparing the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra of the B12/G800A. High-temperature treatment can modify the Co-corrin structure of B12 to form Co–C bonds along with Co–N, which broadens the band of cobalt, essentially lowering the d-band center from its Fermi level. The lower d-band center leads to a moderate hydrogen binding energy, which is favorable for hydrogen adsorption and desorption.

Sabhapathy, P, Raghunath P, Sabbah A, Shown I, Bayikadi KS, Xie R-K, Krishnamoorthy V, Lin M-C, Chen K-H, Chen L-C.  2023.  Axial Chlorine Induced Electron Delocalization in Atomically Dispersed FeN4 Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction Reaction with Improved Hydrogen Peroxide Tolerance, 2023. Small. :2303598.: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd AbstractWebsite

Abstract Atomically dispersed iron sites on nitrogen-doped carbon (Fe-NC) are the most active Pt-group-metal-free catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). However, due to oxidative corrosion and the Fenton reaction, Fe-NC catalysts are insufficiently active and stable. Herein, w e demonstrated that the axial Cl-modified Fe-NC (Cl-Fe-NC) electrocatalyst is active and stable for the ORR in acidic conditions with high H2O2 tolerance. The Cl-Fe-NC exhibits excellent ORR activity, with a high half-wave potential (E1/2) of 0.82 V versus a reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), comparable to Pt/C (E1/2 = 0.85 V versus RHE) and better than Fe-NC (E1/2 = 0.79 V versus RHE). X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis confirms that chlorine is axially integrated into the FeN4. More interestingly, compared to Fe-NC, the Fenton reaction is markedly suppressed in Cl-Fe-NC. In situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy reveals that Cl-Fe-NC provides efficient electron transfer and faster reaction kinetics than Fe-NC. Density functional theory calculations reveal that incorporating Cl into FeN4 can drive the electron density delocalization of the FeN4 site, leading to a moderate adsorption free energy of OH* (?GOH*), d-band center, and a high onset potential, and promotes the direct four-electron-transfer ORR with weak H2O2 binding ability compared to Cl-free FeN4, indicating superior intrinsic ORR activity.

Sabhapathy, P, Shown I, Sabbah A, Raghunath P, Chen J-L, Chen W-F, Lin M-C, Chen K-H, Chen L-C.  2021.  Electronic structure modulation of isolated Co-N4 electrocatalyst by sulfur for improved pH-universal hydrogen evolution reaction, 2021. Nano Energy. 80:105544. AbstractWebsite

Exploring an efficient platinum group metal (PGM) free electrocatalyst with superior activity and stability for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in a wide pH range is desirable for low-cost hydrogen production. Here, we report atomically dispersed cobalt on nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene (N-Co-S/G) for HER. Remarkably, the prepared N-Co-S/G electrocatalyst shows a small overpotential of 67.7 mV vs. reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) at a current density of 10 mA cm−2 and exceptional durability over 100 h at 10 mA cm−2 under acidic conditions. Moreover, we found that the HER activity of N-Co-S/G is close to 20% Pt/C at all pH levels (0–14) and superior activity at high current density (>100 mA cm−2). Experimental and theoretical calculations reveal that the S atom in N-Co-S/G form Co-S bond, resulting new Co-N3S1 active site, which optimizes Gibbs free energy for hydrogen adsorption (∆GH*) close to zero, while water adsorption and dissociation enhanced by S modulation for neutral and basic media HER.

Sahoo, S, Hu MS, Hsu CW, Chen LC, Chen KH, Arora AK, Dhara S.  2008.  Surface optical Raman modes in InN nanostructures. Appl. Phys. Lett.. 93:233116-(1-3).
Sainbileg, B, Lai Y-R, Chen L-C, Hayashi M.  2019.  The dual-defective SnS2 monolayers: promising 2D photocatalysts for overall water splitting, 2019. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. 21(48):26292-26300.: The Royal Society of Chemistry AbstractWebsite

Photocatalytic water splitting is a promising way to produce hydrogen fuel from solar energy. In this regard, the search for new photocatalytic materials that can efficiently split water into hydrogen is essential. Here, using first-principles simulations, we demonstrate that the dual-defective SnS2 (Ni-SnS2-VS), by both single-atom nickel doping and sulfur monovacancies, becomes a promising two-dimensional photocatalyst compared with SnS2. The Ni-SnS2-VS monolayer, in particular, exhibits a suitable band alignment that perfectly overcomes the redox potentials for overall water splitting. The dual-defective monolayer displays remarkable photocatalytic activity, a spatially separated carrier, a broadened optical absorption spectrum, and enhanced adsorption energy of H2O. Therefore, the dual-defective SnS2 monolayer can serve as an efficient photocatalyst for overall water splitting to produce hydrogen fuel. Furthermore, a novel dual-defect method can be an effective strategy to enhance the photocatalytic behavior of 2D materials; it may pave inroads in the development of solar-fuel generation.

Sakthivel, A, Huang SJ, Chen WH, Lan ZH, Chen KH, Lin HP, Mou CY, Liu* SB.  2005.  Direct synthesis of highly stable mesoporous molecular sieve (MMS-H) containing zeolite building units. Adv. Func. Mater.. 15:253-258.
Sakthivel, A, Huang SJ, Chen WH, Lan ZH, Chen KH, Lin HP, Mou CY, Liu* SB.  2004.  Replication of mesoporous aluminosilicate molecular sieves (RMMs) with zeolite framework from mesoporous carbons. Chem. of Mater.. 16:3168-3175.
Samireddi, S, Shown I, Shen T-H, Huang H-C, Wong K-T, Chen L-C, Chen K-H.  2017.  Hybrid bimetallic-N4 electrocatalyst derived from a pyrolyzed ferrocene–Co-corrole complex for oxygen reduction reaction. Journal of Materials Chemistry A. 5:9279-9286.
Samireddi, S, Aishwarya V, Shown I, Muthusamy S, Unni SM, Wong K-T, Chen K-H, Chen L-C.  2021.  Synergistic Dual-Atom Molecular Catalyst Derived from Low-Temperature Pyrolyzed Heterobimetallic Macrocycle-N4 Corrole Complex for Oxygen Reduction. Small. 17:2103823., Number 46 AbstractWebsite

Abstract A heterobimetallic corrole complex, comprising oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) active non-precious metals Co and Fe with a corrole-N4 center (PhFCC), is successfully synthesized and used to prepare a dual-atom molecular catalyst (DAMC) through subsequent low-temperature pyrolysis. This low-temperature pyrolyzed electrocatalyst exhibited impressive ORR performance, with onset potentials of 0.86 and 0.94 V, and half-wave potentials of 0.75 and 0.85 V, under acidic and basic conditions, respectively. During potential cycling, this DAMC displayed half-wave potential losses of only 25 and 5 mV under acidic and alkaline conditions after 3000 cycles, respectively, demonstrating its excellent stability. Single-cell Nafion-based proton exchange membrane fuel cell performance using this DAMC as the cathode catalyst showed a maximum power density of 225 mW cm−2, almost close to that of most metal–N4 macrocycle-based catalysts. The present study showed that preservation of the defined CoN4 structure along with the cocatalytic Fe–Cx site synergistically acted as a dual ORR active center to boost overall ORR performance. The development of DAMC from a heterobimetallic CoN4-macrocyclic system using low-temperature pyrolysis is also advantageous for practical applications.

Sankar, R, Wong DP, Chi CS, Chien WL, Hwang JS, Chou FC, Chen LC, Chen KH.  2015.  Enhanced thermoelectric performance of GeTe-rich germanium antimony tellurides through the control of composition and structure. CrystEngComm, . 17:3440.
Sarma, LS, Chen CH, Kumar SMS, Wang GR, Yen SC, liu DG, Sheu HS, Yu KL, Tang MT, Lee JF, Bock C, Chen KH, Hwang* BJ.  2007.  Formation of Pt-Ru nanoparticles in ethylene glycol solution: an in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy study. Langmuir. 23:5802-5809.
Shelke, AR, Wang H-T, Chiou J-W, Shown I, Sabbah A, Chen K-H, Teng S-A, Lin I-A, Lee C-C, Hsueh H-C, Liang Y-H, Du C-H, Yadav PL, Ray SC, Hsieh S-H, Pao C-W, Tsai H-M, Chen C-H, Chen K-H, Chen L-C, Pong W-F.  2022.  Bandgap Shrinkage and Charge Transfer in 2D Layered SnS2 Doped with V for Photocatalytic Efficiency Improvement. Small. n/a:2105076., Number n/a AbstractWebsite

Abstract Effects of electronic and atomic structures of V-doped 2D layered SnS2 are studied using X-ray spectroscopy for the development of photocatalytic/photovoltaic applications. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure measurements at V K-edge reveal the presence of VO and VS bonds which form the intercalation of tetrahedral OVS sites in the van der Waals (vdW) gap of SnS2 layers. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) reveals not only valence state of V dopant in SnS2 is ≈4+ but also the charge transfer (CT) from V to ligands, supported by V Lα,β resonant inelastic X-ray scattering. These results suggest V doping produces extra interlayer covalent interactions and additional conducting channels, which increase the electronic conductivity and CT. This gives rapid transport of photo-excited electrons and effective carrier separation in layered SnS2. Additionally, valence-band photoemission spectra and S K-edge XANES indicate that the density of states near/at valence-band maximum is shifted to lower binding energy in V-doped SnS2 compare to pristine SnS2 and exhibits band gap shrinkage. These findings support first-principles density functional theory calculations of the interstitially tetrahedral OVS site intercalated in the vdW gap, highlighting the CT from V to ligands in V-doped SnS2.

Shen, ZH, Hess* P, Huang JP, Lin YC, Chen KH, Chen LC, Lin ST.  2006.  Mechanical properties of nanocrystalline diamond films. J. Appl. Phys.. 99:124302-(1-6).
Shi, SC, Chen CF, Hsu GM, Hwang JS, Chattopadhyay S, Lan ZH, Chen KH, Chen* LC.  2005.  Reduced temperature-quenching of photoluminescence from indium nitride nanotips grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Appl. Phys. Lett.. 87:203103-(1-3).
Shi, SC, Chen CF, Chattopadhyay S, Dhara SK, Chen KH, Ke BK, Chen* LC, Trinkler L, Berzina B.  2006.  Luminescence properties of wurtzite AlN nanotips. Appl. Phys. Lett.. 89:163127-(1-3).
Shi, SC, Chen CF, Chattopadhyay S, Chen KH, Chen* LC.  2005.  Field Emission from Quasi-aligned Aluminum Nitride Nanotips. Appl. Phys. Lett.. 87:73109-(1-3).
Shi, SC, Chen CF, Chattopadhyay S, Lan ZH, Chen KH, Chen* LC.  2005.  Growth of single-crystal wurtzite aluminum nitride nanotips with self-selective apex angle. Adv. Func. Mater.. 15:781-786.
Shi, SC, Chattopadhyay* S, Chen CF, Chen KH, Chen LC.  2006.  Structural evolution of AlN nano-structure: nanotips and nanorods. Chem. Phys. Lett.. 418:152-157.
Shit, SC, Shown I, Paul R, Chen K-H, Mondal J, Chen L-C.  2020.  Integrated nano-architectured photocatalysts for photochemical CO2 reduction, 2020. Nanoscale. 12(46):23301-23332.: The Royal Society of Chemistry AbstractWebsite

Recent advances in nanotechnology, especially the development of integrated nanostructured materials, have offered unprecedented opportunities for photocatalytic CO2 reduction. Compared to bulk semiconductor photocatalysts, most of these nanostructured photocatalysts offer at least one advantage in areas such as photogenerated carrier kinetics, light absorption, and active surface area, supporting improved photochemical reaction efficiencies. In this review, we briefly cover the cutting-edge research activities in the area of integrated nanostructured catalysts for photochemical CO2 reduction, including aqueous and gas-phase reactions. Primarily explored are the basic principles of tailor-made nanostructured composite photocatalysts and how nanostructuring influences photochemical performance. Specifically, we summarize the recent developments related to integrated nanostructured materials for photocatalytic CO2 reduction, mainly in the following five categories: carbon-based nano-architectures, metal–organic frameworks, covalent-organic frameworks, conjugated porous polymers, and layered double hydroxide-based inorganic hybrids. Besides the technical aspects of nanostructure-enhanced catalytic performance in photochemical CO2 reduction, some future research trends and promising strategies are addressed.

Shown, I, Ganguly A, Chen L-C, Chen K-H.  2015.  Conducting polymer-based flexible supercapacitor, 2015. Energy Science & EngineeringEnergy Science & Engineering. 3(1):2-26.: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd AbstractWebsite

Abstract Flexible supercapacitors, a state-of-the-art material, have emerged with the potential to enable major advances in for cutting-edge electronic applications. Flexible supercapacitors are governed by the fundamentals standard for the conventional capacitors but provide high flexibility, high charge storage and low resistance of electro active materials to achieve high capacitance performance. Conducting polymers (CPs) are among the most potential pseudocapacitor materials for the foundation of flexible supercapacitors, motivating the existing energy storage devices toward the future advanced flexible electronic applications due to their high redox active-specific capacitance and inherent elastic polymeric nature. This review focuses on different types of CPs-based supercapacitor, the relevant fabrication methods and designing concepts. It describes recent developments and remaining challenges in this field, and its impact on the future direction of flexible supercapacitor materials and relevant device fabrications.