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and L.C. Chen*, Kichambare PD, Chen KH, Wu JJ, Yang JR, Lin ST.  2001.  Growth of highly transparent nano-crystalline diamond films and a spectroscopic study of the growth. J. Appl. Phys.. 89:753-759.
Lai, YT, Ganguly A, Chen CP, Chen KH, Chen* LC.  2010.  Direct voltammetric sensing of L-cysteine atpristine GaN nanowires electrode. Biosensors and Bioelectronics. 26:1688-1691.
Lan, ZH, Dhara SK, Chen* KH, Wu CT, Chen LC, Hsu CW, Chen CC.  2004.  Nanohomojunction (GaN) and nanoheterojunction (InN) nanorods on 1-dimensional GaN nanowire substrates. Adv. Func. Mater.. 14:233-237.
Lan, ZH, Wang WM, Sun CL, Shi SC, Hsu CW, Chen KH, Chen CC, Chen* LC.  2004.  Growth mechanism, structure and IR photoluminescence studies of indium nitride nanorods. J. Cryst. Growth. 269:87-94.
Lee, YY, Tu KH, Yu CC, Li SS, Hwang JY, Lin CC, Chen KH, Chen LC, Chen HL, Chen CW.  2011.  Top laminated graphene electrode in a semitransparent polymer solar cell by simultaneous thermal annealing/releasing method. ACS Nano. 5:6564-6570.
Lee, S-W, Abdi ZG, Chen J-C, Chen K-H.  2021.  Optimal method for preparing sulfonated polyaryletherketones with high ion exchange capacity by acid-catalyzed crosslinking for proton exchange membrane fuel cells, 2021. Journal of Polymer ScienceJournal of Polymer Science. 59(8):706-720.: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd AbstractWebsite

Abstract Sulfonated polyaryletherketones (SPAEK) bearing four sulfonic acid groups on the phenyl side groups were synthesized. The benzophenone moiety of polymer backbone was further reduced to benzydrol group with sodium borohydride. The membranes were crosslinked by acid-catalyzed Friedel-Crafts reaction without sacrifice of sulfonic acid groups and ion exchange capacity (IEC) values. Crosslinked membranes with the same IEC value but different water uptake could be prepared. The optimal crosslinking condition was investigated to achieve lower water uptake, better chemical stability (Fenton's test), and higher proton conductivity. In addition, the hydrophilic ionic channels from originally course and disordered could be modified to be narrow and continuous by this crosslinking method. The crosslinked membranes, CS4PH-40-PEKOH (IEC = 2.4 meq./g), reduced water uptake from 200 to 88% and the weight loss was reduced from 11 to 5% during the Fenton test compared to uncrosslinked one (S4PH-40-PEK). The membrane showed comparable proton conductivity (0.01?0.19?S/cm) to Nafion 212 at 80°C from low to high relative humidity (RH). Single H2/O2 fuel cell based on the crosslinked SPAEK with catalyst loading of 0.25?mg/cm2 (Pd/C) exhibited a peak power density of 220.3 mW/cm2, which was close to that of Nafion 212 (214.0 mW/cm2) at 80°C under 53% RH. These membranes provide a good option as proton exchange membrane with high ion exchange capacity for fuel cells.

Lee, C-P, Chen W-F, Billo T, Lin Y-G, Fu F-Y, Samireddi S, Lee C-H, Hwang J-S, Chen K-H, Chen L-C.  2016.  Beaded stream-like CoSe2 nanoneedle array for efficient hydrogen evolution electrocatalysis, 2016. Journal of Materials Chemistry A. 4(12):4553-4561.: The Royal Society of Chemistry AbstractWebsite

The development of earth-abundant and efficient electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is one of the keys to success for future green energy systems using hydrogen fuel. Nanostructuring of electrocatalysts is a promising way to enhance their electrocatalytic performance in the HER. In this study, pure pyrite-type beaded stream-like cobalt diselenide (CoSe2) nanoneedles are directly formed on flexible titanium foils through treating a cobalt oxide (Co3O4) nanoneedle array template with selenium vapor. The beaded stream-like CoSe2 nanoneedle electrode can drive the HER at a current density of 20 mA cm−2 with a small overpotential of 125 mV. Moreover, the beaded stream-like CoSe2 nanoneedle electrode remains stable in an acidic electrolyte for 3000 cycles and continuously splits water over a period of 18 hours. The enhanced electrochemical activity is facilitated by the unique three-dimensional hierarchical structure, the highly accessible surface active sites, the improved charge transfer kinetics and the highly attractive force between water and the surface of the nanoneedles that exceeds the surface tension of water.

Lee, S-W, Chen J-C, Wu J-A, Chen K-H.  2017.  Synthesis and Properties of Poly(ether sulfone)s with Clustered Sulfonic Groups for PEMFC Applications under Various Relative Humidity. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces. 9(11):9805–9814.
Lee, CP, Chen* WF, Billo T, Lin YG, Fu FY, Samireddi S, Lee CH, Hwang JS, Chen* LC, Chen* KH.  2016.  Beaded-stream-like CoSe2 nanoneedles array for efficient hydrogen evolution electrocatalysis. J. Mater. Chem. A . 4 :4553-4561.
Lee, S-W, Chen J-C, Wu J-A, Chen K-H.  2017.  Synthesis and Properties of Poly(ether sulfone)s with Clustered Sulfonic Groups for PEMFC Applications under Various Relative Humidity, 2017. ACS Applied Materials & InterfacesACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 9(11):9805-9814.: American Chemical Society AbstractWebsite
Lehmann, G, Hess* P, Wu J-J, Wu CT, Chen KH, Chen LC, Lee H-Y.  2001.  Structure and elastic properties of amorphous SiCN films. Phys. Rev.. B64:165305-(1-10).
Li, CL, Huang BR, Chattopadhyay* S, Chen KH, Chen LC.  2004.  Amorphous boron carbon nitride as a pH sensor. Appl. Phys. Lett.. 84:2676-2678.
Li, L-C, Huang K-H, Wei J-A, Suen Y-W, Liu T-W, Chen C-C, Chen L-C, Chen K-H.  2011.  Low-frequency contact noise of GaN nanowire device detected by cross-spectrum technique. J. J. App. Phys.. 50:06GF21.
Li, CC, Chen YW, Lin RJ, Chang CC, Chen KH, H.P.Lin, Chen LC.  2011.  Self-reductive mesoporous CuOx/Fe/silicate nanocomposite as a highly active and stable catalyst for methanol reforming. Chem. Comm.. 47:9414-9416.
Li, CC, Lin RJ, Lin HP, Chang CC, Lin YK, Chen LC, Chen KH.  2011.  Catalytic performance of plate-type Cu/Fe nanocomposites on ZnO nanorods for oxidative steam reforming of methanol. Chem. Comm.. 47:1473-1475.
Liang, CK, Chang ST, Verkhoturov SV, Chen LC, Chen KH, Schweikert* EA.  2014.  SIMS methodology for probing the fate and dispersion of catalytically active molecules. Intl. J. Mass Spectrometry . 370:107-113.
Liang, CH, Chen* LC, Hwang JS, Chen KH, Hung YT, Chen YF.  2002.  Selective-area growth of InN nanowires on gold-patterned Si(100) substrates. Appl. Phys. Lett.. 81:22-24.
Lien, H-T, Chang S-T, Chen P-T, Wong DP, Chang Y-C, Lu Y-R, Dong C-L, Wang C-H, Chen K-H, Chen L-C.  2020.  Probing the active site in single-atom oxygen reduction catalysts via operando X-ray and electrochemical spectroscopy, 2020. 11(1):4233. AbstractWebsite

Nonnoble metal catalysts are low-cost alternatives to Pt for the oxygen reduction reactions (ORRs), which have been studied for various applications in electrocatalytic systems. Among them, transition metal complexes, characterized by a redox-active single-metal-atom with biomimetic ligands, such as pyrolyzed cobalt–nitrogen–carbon (Co–Nx/C), have attracted considerable attention. Therefore, we reported the ORR mechanism of pyrolyzed Vitamin B12 using operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy coupled with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, which enables operando monitoring of the oxygen binding site on the metal center. Our results revealed the preferential adsorption of oxygen at the Co2+ center, with end-on coordination forming a Co2+-oxo species. Furthermore, the charge transfer mechanism between the catalyst and reactant enables further Co–O species formation. These experimental findings, corroborated with first-principle calculations, provide insight into metal active-site geometry and structural evolution during ORR, which could be used for developing material design strategies for high-performance electrocatalysts for fuel cell applications.

Lien, HT, Wong DP, Tsao NH, Huang CI, Su C, Chen KH, Chen LC.  2014.  Effect of copper oxide oxidation state on the polymer-based solar cell buffer layers. ACS Appl. Mater. & Inter. .
Lien, H-T, Chang Y-C, Huang C-Y, Hsu H-C, Chang S-T, Wong DP, Wang C-H, Wang C-H, Chen K-H, Chen L-C.  2021.  Solar to hydrocarbon production using metal-free water-soluble bulk heterojunction of conducting polymer nanoparticle and graphene oxide, 2021. The Journal of Chemical PhysicsThe Journal of Chemical Physics. 154(16):164707.: American Institute of Physics AbstractWebsite
Lim, W, Wright JS, Gila BP, Pearton SJ, Ren F, Lai WT, Chen LC, Hu MS, Chen KH.  2008.  Selective-hydrogen sensing at room temperature with Pt-coated InN nanobelts. Appl. Phys. Lett.. 93:202109-(1-3).
Lin, CH, Chen RS, Lin YK, Wang SB, Chen LC, Chen KH, Wen MC, Chou MMC, Chang L.  2017.  Photoconduction properties and anomalous power-dependent quantum efficiency in non-polar ZnO epitaxial films grown by chemical vapor deposition. APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS . 110:052101.
Lin, HY, Chen YC, Lin CY, Tong YP, Hwa LG, Chen KH, Chen* LC.  2002.  Field emission of nanostructured amorphous SiCN films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering of SiC in CH4/N2atmosphere. Thin Solid Films. 416:85-91.
Lin, YG, Hsu YK, Lin YK, Chen SY, Chen LC, Chen* KH.  2011.  Microwave-activated CuO nanotip/ZnO nanorod nanoarchitectures embedded in a microreactor for efficient hydrogen production. J. Mater. Chem.. 21:324-326.
Lin, YR, Tunuguntla V, Wei SY, Chen WC, Wong D, Lai CH, Liu LK, Chen LC, Chen KH.  2015.  Bifacial sodium-incorporated treatments: tailoring deep traps and enhancing carrier transport properties in Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells. Nano Energy . 16:438.