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Wang, CH, Chen CC, Hsu HC, Du HY, Chen CP, Hwang JY, Chen LC, C.Shih H, Stejskal J, Chen* KH.  2009.  Low methanol-permeable polyaniline/nafion composite membrane for direct methanol fuel cell. J. Power. Sources. 190:279-284.
Dhara*, S, Wu JJ, Mangama G, Bera S, Magudapathy P, Wu CT, Nair KGM, Kamaruddin M, Yu CC, Yang MH, Liu SC, Tyagi AK, Narashiman SV, Chen LC, Chen KH.  2007.  Long-range ferromagnetic ordering at room temperature in Co+ implanted TiO2 nanorods. Nanotechnology. 18:325705.
Thang, NQ, Sabbah A, Chen L-C, Chen K-H, Hai LV, Thi CM, Viet PV.  2020.  Localized surface plasmonic resonance role of silver nanoparticles in the enhancement of long-chain hydrocarbons of the CO2 reduction over Ag-gC3N4/ZnO nanorods photocatalysts, 2020. :116049. AbstractWebsite

The conversion of CO2 into hydrocarbon fuels via the photocatalytic reaction route is considered a potential strategy to concurrently address serious energy crisis and greenhouse gas emission problems. Nevertheless, the generation of long-chain hydrocarbon products (Cn, n ≥ 2) from the visible-light-reactive photocatalytic CO2 reduction has also been considering a contemporary challenge. Herein, we indicate that Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) loaded gC3N4/ZnO nanorods heterojunction (Ag-gC3N4/ZnO NRs abbreviation) has extended photoactive range and enhanced specific surface area. The combination of Ag NPs and gC3N4/ZnO NRs significantly enhances photocatalytic CO2 reduction efficiency to form the acetone product. Detail, the acetone production efficiency of Ag-gC3N4/ZnO NRs is 8.4 and 7.5 times higher than pure ZnO NRs and gC3N4/ZnO NRs at the same condition, respectively. This study represents a potential approach toward higher-energy-value hydrocarbons production and greenhouse gas emission mitigation.

and P.D. Kichambare, Chen* LC, Wang CT, Ma KJ, Wu CT, Chen KH.  2001.  Laser irradiation of carbon nanotubes. Materials Chemistry and Physics. 72:218-222.
Wu, JY, Chen KH.  1996.  Large Area Epitaxial Growth of Diamond Films. J. of the Vacuum Soc. of Taiwan. 9:18.
Chen, CP, Ganguly A, Wang CH, Hsu CW, Hsu YK, Chang YC, Chen* KH, Chen* LC.  2009.  Label-free dual sensing of DNA molecules using GaN nanowires. Anal. Chem.. 81:36-42.
Lo, HC, Hsiung HI, Chattopadhyay S, Han HC, Chen CF, Leu JP, Chen KH, Chen LC.  2011.  Label free sub-picomole level DNA detection with Ag nanoparticle decorated Au nanotip arrays as surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy platform. Biosensors and Bioelectronics. 26:2413-2418.
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Fu, F-Y, Shown I, Li C-S, Raghunath P, Lin T-Y, Billo T, Wu H-L, Wu C-I, Chung P-W, Lin M-C, Chen L-C, Chen K-H.  2019.  KSCN-induced Interfacial Dipole in Black TiO2 for Enhanced Photocatalytic CO2 Reduction, 2019. ACS Applied Materials & InterfacesACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 11(28):25186-25194.: American Chemical Society AbstractWebsite
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Wang, CT, Ma* KJ, Chen KH, Chen LC, Kichambare PD.  2001.  Ion beam sputtered growth and mechanical properties of SiCN films. J. of Mater. Sci. and Engineering. 33:38.
Wei-ChaoChen, Cheng-YingChen, Lin Y-R, Chang J-K, Chen C-H, Chiu Y-P, Wu C-I, Chen K-H, Chen L-C.  2019.  Interface engineering of CdS/CZTSSe heterojunctions for enhancing the Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cell efficiency. Materials Today Energy. 13:256-266. AbstractWebsite

Interface engineering of CdS/CZTS(Se) is an important aspect of improving the performance of buffer/absorber heterojunction combination. It has been demonstrated that the crossover phenomenon due to the interface recombination can be drastically eliminated by interface modification. Therefore, in-depth studies across the CdS/CZTS(Se) junction properties, as well as effective optimization processes, are very crucial for achieving high-efficiency CZTSSe solar cells. Here, we present a comprehensive study on the effects of soft-baking (SB) temperature on the junction properties and the corresponding optoelectronic and interface-structural properties. Based on in-depth photoemission studies corroborated with structural and composition analysis, we concluded that interdiffusion and intermixing of CZTSSe and CdS phases occurred on the Cu-poor surface of CZTSSe at elevated SB temperatures, and the interface dipole moments induced by electrostatic potential fluctuation were thus significantly eliminated. In contrast, with low SB temperature, the CdS/CZTSSe heterojunction revealed very sharp interface with very short interdiffusion, forming interface dipole moments and drastically deteriorating device performance. These post thermal treatments also significantly suppress defect energy level of interface measured by admittance spectroscopy from 294 to 109 meV due to CdS/CZTSSe interdiffusion. Meanwhile, the interdiffusion effects on the shift of valence band maximum, conduction band minimum and band offset across the heterojunction of thermally treated CdS/CZTSSe interface are spatially resolved at the atomic scale by measuring the local density of states with cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. A significant enhancement in the power conversion efficiency from 4.88% to 8.48% is achieved by a facile interface engineering process allowing a sufficient intermixing of CdS/Cd and CZTSSe/Se phases without detrimental recombination centers.

Wu, JS, Chen YF, Dhara S, Wu CT, Chen KH, Chen* LC.  2003.  Interface energy of Au7Si grown in the interfacial layer of truncated hexagonal dipyramidal Au nanoislands on polycrystalline-silicon. Appl. Phys. Lett.. 82:4468-4470.
Mazur, E, Chen KH, Wang J.  1986.  The Interaction of Infrared Radiation with Isolated Molecules: intramolecular nonequilibrium. Int. Conf. on Lasers 6. :359., Orlando
Su, C, Tsai CS, Lin TE, Chen KH, Wang JK, Lin JC.  2000.  Interaction of atomic hydrogen with a Ge(111) surface: LEED and surface Raman studies. Surface Science. 445:139-150.
Cheng*, HC, Hong WK, Tarntair FG, Chen KJ, Lin JB, Chen KH, Chen LC.  2001.  Integration of thin film transistor controlled carbon nanotubes for field-emission devices. Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters. 4 (4):H5-H7.
Pathak, A, Shen J-W, Usman M, Wei L-F, Mendiratta S, Chang Y-S, Sainbileg B, Ngue C-M, Chen R-S, Hayashi M, Luo T-T, Chen F-R, Chen K-H, Tseng T-W, Chen L-C, Lu K-L.  2019.  Integration of a (–Cu–S–)n plane in a metal–organic framework affords high electrical conductivity, 2019. 10(1):1721. AbstractWebsite

Designing highly conducting metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) is currently a subject of great interest for their potential applications in diverse areas encompassing energy storage and generation. Herein, a strategic design in which a metal–sulfur plane is integrated within a MOF to achieve high electrical conductivity, is successfully demonstrated. The MOF {[Cu2(6-Hmna)(6-mn)]·NH4}n (1, 6-Hmna = 6-mercaptonicotinic acid, 6-mn = 6-mercaptonicotinate), consisting of a two dimensional (–Cu–S–)n plane, is synthesized from the reaction of Cu(NO3)2, and 6,6′-dithiodinicotinic acid via the in situ cleavage of an S–S bond under hydrothermal conditions. A single crystal of the MOF is found to have a low activation energy (6 meV), small bandgap (1.34 eV) and a highest electrical conductivity (10.96 S cm−1) among MOFs for single crystal measurements. This approach provides an ideal roadmap for producing highly conductive MOFs with great potential for applications in batteries, thermoelectric, supercapacitors and related areas.

Shit, SC, Shown I, Paul R, Chen K-H, Mondal J, Chen L-C.  2020.  Integrated nano-architectured photocatalysts for photochemical CO2 reduction, 2020. Nanoscale. 12(46):23301-23332.: The Royal Society of Chemistry AbstractWebsite

Recent advances in nanotechnology, especially the development of integrated nanostructured materials, have offered unprecedented opportunities for photocatalytic CO2 reduction. Compared to bulk semiconductor photocatalysts, most of these nanostructured photocatalysts offer at least one advantage in areas such as photogenerated carrier kinetics, light absorption, and active surface area, supporting improved photochemical reaction efficiencies. In this review, we briefly cover the cutting-edge research activities in the area of integrated nanostructured catalysts for photochemical CO2 reduction, including aqueous and gas-phase reactions. Primarily explored are the basic principles of tailor-made nanostructured composite photocatalysts and how nanostructuring influences photochemical performance. Specifically, we summarize the recent developments related to integrated nanostructured materials for photocatalytic CO2 reduction, mainly in the following five categories: carbon-based nano-architectures, metal–organic frameworks, covalent-organic frameworks, conjugated porous polymers, and layered double hydroxide-based inorganic hybrids. Besides the technical aspects of nanostructure-enhanced catalytic performance in photochemical CO2 reduction, some future research trends and promising strategies are addressed.

Hu, MS, Hsu GM, Chen* KH, Yu CJ, Hsu HC, Chen LC, Hwang JH, Hong LS, Chen YF.  2007.  Infrared lasing in InN nanobelts. Appl. Phys. Lett.. 90:123109.
Chang, CK, Hwang JY, Lai WJ, Chen CW, Huang CI, Chen KH, Chen LC.  2010.  Influence of solvent on the dispersion of single-walled carbon nanotubes in polymer matrix and the photovoltaic performance. J. Phys. Chem.. C114:10932-10936.
Z. H. Shen, Hess* P, Huang JP, Lin YC, Chen KH.  2006.  Influence of oxygen on the elastic properties of nanocrystalline diamond films studied by laser-induced surface acoustic waves. Ultrasonics. 44:e1229-e1232.
Rajeev Gandhi, J, Nehru R, Chen S-M, Sankar R, Bayikadi KS, Sureshkumar P, Chen K-H, Chen L-C.  2018.  Influence of GeP precipitates on the thermoelectric properties of P-type GeTe and Ge0.9−xPxSb0.1Te compounds, 2018. CrystEngComm. 20(41):6449-6457.: The Royal Society of Chemistry AbstractWebsite

Germanium telluride (GeTe) is a very well known IV–VI group semiconducting material with the advantageous property of showing metallic conduction, which materializes from its superior carrier concentration (n) (high number of Ge vacancies). A systematic investigation into the thermoelectric properties (TEP) of GeTe was reported by way of carrier concentration (n) engineering. The present investigation focuses on studying the effects of doping (antimony – Sb) and co-doping (phosphorus – P) on the TEP of GeTe. In order to understand the system, we have prepared p-type GeTe and Ge0.9−xPxSb0.1Te (x = 0, 0.01, 0.03, or 0.05) samples via a non-equilibrium solid state melt quenching (MQ) process, followed by hot press consolidation. Temperature dependent synchrotron X-ray diffraction studies reveal a phase transition from rhombohedral to simple cubic in the Ge0.9−xPxSb0.1Te system at 573 K, which is clearly reflected in the TEP. Further high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) studies reveal the pseudo-cubic nature of the sample. However, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) studies confirm the presence of germanium phosphide (GeP) in all P-doped samples. The presence of a secondary phase and point defects (Sb & P) enhanced the additional scattering effects in the system, which influenced the Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductivity of GeTe. A significant enhancement in the Seebeck coefficient (S) to ∼225 μV K−1 and a drastic reduction in thermal conductivity (κ) to ∼1.2 W mK−1 effectively enhanced the figure-of-merit (ZT) to ∼1.72 at 773 K for Ge0.87P0.03Sb0.1Te, which is a ∼3 fold increase for GeTe. Finally, P co-doped Ge0.9Sb0.1Te demonstrates an enhancement in ZT, making it a good candidate material for power generation applications.

Fang, WC, Huang* JH, Chen LC, Chen KH, Su OYH.  2007.  Influence of catalyst oxidation on the growth of nitrogen-containing carbonnanotubes for energy generation and storage applications. Diamond Relat. Mater.. 16:1140-1143.
Kholimatussadiah, S, Hsu C-L, Ke S-W, Chou T-chin, Wu Y-F, Yakimova R, Kumatani A, Chen K-H, Chen L-C, Du H-Y.  2024.  In-situ observation of hydrogen nanobubbles formation on graphene surface by AFM-SECM, 2024. Electrochimica Acta. 493:144425. AbstractWebsite

Gas bubble evolution is an important phenomenon in many electrochemical processes and it is highly sensitive to the surface properties. Here we visualize the gas bubble dynamics on the surface of different graphene substrates during hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) using atomic force microscopy combined with scanning electrochemical microscopy. The low overpotential and low surface hydrophobicity of few-layer graphene formed on C-phase SiC causes the uniform distribution of hydrogen nanobubbles, which easily depart from the surface during the reaction. Conversely, the high overpotential and more hydrophobic surface of HOPG induces hydrogen bubbles to linger on the surface for an extended duration, leading to its accumulation and the subsequent formation of microbubbles. This in-situ nanoscale electrochemical mapping of hydrogen bubble dynamics provides new insight into electrocatalytic HER that occurs on non-metal electrodes.

Chen, IN, Chong CW, Lyu LM, Wong DP, Chien WL, Anbu A, Chen YF, Chen LC, Chen KH.  2016.  Improving the thermoelectric performance of metastable rock-salt GeTe-rich Ge-Sb-Te thin films through tuning of grain orientation and vacancies. Physica Status Solidi A . :1-8.
Basilio, AM, Hsu YK, Tu WH, Hsu GM, Chen LC, Chen* KH.  2010.  Improving the photoelectrochemical and H2gas generation property of c-plane GaN thin film through crystallographic etching of the film. J. Mater. Chem.. 20:8118-8125.